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Advantages of standardization


One common mistake in process optimisation is to just look at average processing times as well as at idle times. Instead, it is also important to evaluate the time differences between employees in order to find examples for best practice approaches. Those approaches can then be looked at while composing standards. The goal here is to figure out how exactly the top-performing employees achieve their results – and to find a way in which other employees learn something from them.

These lecture notes were taken during 2013 installment of the MOOC “An Introduction to Operations Management” taught by Prof. Dr. Christian Terwiesch of the Wharton Business School of the University of Pennsylvania at


  1. […] is still being operated on inside. If set-up times can also be improved through other activities (standardization, process optimisation etc.), flow unit types can be changed more often and flexibility is […]

  2. […] Variability is not limited to the demand process, but also occurs in processing. The calculations are basically the same, with the average processing time being denoted with p and the coefficient of variation being denoted with Cv_p. The coefficient of variation can be seen as a measure of the degree to which a work process has been standardized. […]

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